Dataset for A new way of thinking about environmental building standards: developing and demonstrating a client-led zero-energy standard

There are over 70 low energy and carbon standards in use around the world. None of these standards have been designed by the clients who pay for and occupy the buildings in question. In this work the client was asked to define the building code via a structured survey. This approach was applied to the design and construction of a new 2 800 m2 building. The resulting zero-energy standard simply required the building to incur no energy utility bill. One year of monitoring of the completed building was used to see if the standard had been met. The result of this work is a new way of thinking about environmental building standards that solves many of the issues of obtaining and maintaining buy-in from the client.

Civil engineering and built environment

Cite this dataset as:
Parkin, A., Coley, D., Mitchell, A., Rea, C., 2015. Dataset for A new way of thinking about environmental building standards: developing and demonstrating a client-led zero-energy standard. Bath: University of Bath Research Data Archive. Available from:


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Carbon dioxide concentrations (ppm) in Classroom 8 as recorded by the building management system

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Anna Parkin
University of Bath

David Coley
University of Bath

Andrew Mitchell
University of Exeter

Christopher Rea
University of Bath


University of Bath
Rights Holder


Temporal coverage:

From 16 May 2008 to 14 October 2013

Geographical coverage:

Exeter, UK


Data collection method:

A client group was identified that was about to commission a low/zero energy/carbon building. The proposed building was a 450 pupil school. The client group where defined as the head teacher, 16 members of teaching staff, three members of non-teaching staff, five parents and six representatives of the local authority (who were paying for the construction of the building). The client group were given a lecture (approximately 30 minutes) on climate change and UK energy policy, and a lecture (also approximately 30 minutes) on zero and low energy building standards from around the world with terms such as embodied energy and emission factor being explained. The purpose of the lectures was to inform the group about the concepts and language surrounding energy, CO2 emissions and building standards, in order that they could meaningfully consider what a zero-energy building meant to them. They were then asked to complete a questionnaire designed to determine what they thought should and should not be used as criteria for the zero-energy/carbon standard used for the new building. Nineteen possible endings to the statement “the criteria for the definition of a zero-carbon building should…” were presented along with a scale allowing the respondent to indicate how strongly they agreed with the criteria. The five-point scale ranged from minus 2 (strongly disagree) to plus 2 (strongly agree) with 0 expressing neutrality. The final question asked the respondent to indicate what they thought was an appropriate balance period.

Documentation Files

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Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council

EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in the Decarbonisation of the Built Environment (DBE)

Publication details

Publication date: 2015
by: University of Bath

Version: 1


URL for this record:

Related papers and books

Parkin, A., Mitchell, A., and Coley, D., 2015. A new way of thinking about environmental building standards: Developing and demonstrating a client-led zero-energy standard. Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, 37(4), 413-430. Available from:

Contact information

Please contact the Research Data Service in the first instance for all matters concerning this item.

Contact person: Anna Parkin


Faculty of Engineering & Design
Architecture & Civil Engineering