Dataset for "Influence of clay minerals and associated minerals in alkali activation of soils"

Chemical characterisation data describing the precursors and cured products formed when reacting natural and synthetic soils with sodium hydroxide solution.

alkali activation, geopolymer, zeolite, soil, earth, stabilisation, clay minerals, associated minerals

Cite this dataset as:
Marsh, A., 2019. Dataset for "Influence of clay minerals and associated minerals in alkali activation of soils". Bath: University of Bath Research Data Archive. Available from:


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Dataset - Influence … soils.xlsx
application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet (14MB)
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Alastair Marsh
University of Bath


Andrew Heath
University of Bath

Pascaline Patureau
University of Bath

Mark Evernden
University of Bath

Peter Walker
University of Bath

University of Bath
Rights Holder


Collection date(s):

From 1 May 2017 to 1 August 2018


Technical details and requirements:

For particle size distribution (Fig. 1): The particle size distribution was measured by a combination of wet-sieving, to measure particle grading from 2 mm – 63 μm, and hydrometer testing, to measure particle grading < 63 μm by using the principle of Stokes’ Law to measure particle size by the time taken for particles to fall out of suspension in water. For plastic limit (Fig. 2): Atterberg plastic limit measurements were taken for montmorillonite and illite over a range of sodium hydroxide solution concentrations, based on BS 1377-2:1990. From these data a best fit line was plotted to extrapolate the volume of solution required to reach plastic limit consistency for a given concentration. A correction was made to exclude the mass of the sodium hydroxide from the solids mass in the plastic limit calculations. For XRD (Figs. 4, 5, 6, 7, A2): Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis was done to identify phases with a Bruker D8 Advance instrument using monochromatic CuKalpha1 L3 (λ = 1.540598 Å) X-radiation and a Vantec superspeed detector. A step size of 0.016° (2θ) and step duration of 0.3 seconds were used. Phase identification was done using Bruker EVA software. Patterns were corrected for sample height shift by calibrating to the most intense quartz reflection (101) at 26.6° (2θ). For FTIR (Figs. 11, 12, 13): Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was done to characterise molecular bonding, using a Perkin-Elmer Frontier with a diamond Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) head. Spectra were collected over a range of 4000-600 cm⁻¹ using a resolution of 4cm⁻¹ and 5 scans per spectrum. Corrections were made for ATR and background using Perkin-Elmer Spectrum software. For TGA/MAS (Figs. 14, 15, 16): Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was done to characterise thermal behaviour, using a Setaram Setsys Evolution TGA over a range of 30 to 1000 °C at a heating rate of 10 °C/minute. An air atmosphere was used, with a flow rate of 20 ml/minute. A connected mass spectrometer was used (Pfeiffer Omni) to identify whether evolved gas species contained OH, H2O, CO or CO2.


Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)

EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in the Decarbonisation of the Built Environment (DBE)

Publication details

Publication date: 10 September 2019
by: University of Bath

Version: 1


URL for this record:

Related articles

Marsh, A., Heath, A., Patureau, P., Evernden, P. and Walker, P., 2019. Influence of clay minerals and associated minerals in alkali activation of soils. Construction and Building Materials, 229, p.116816. Available from:

Contact information

Please contact the Research Data Service in the first instance for all matters concerning this item.

Contact person: Alastair Marsh


Faculty of Engineering & Design
Architecture & Civil Engineering

Faculty of Science

Research Centres & Institutes
BRE Centre in Innovative Construction Materials (BRE CICM)
Centre for Doctoral Training in Decarbonisation of the Built Environment (dCarb)