Dataset for "Alkali activation behaviour of un-calcined montmorillonite and illite clay minerals"

Chemical characterisation data describing the precursors and cured products formed when reacting montmorillonite and illite clay precursors with sodium hydroxide solution at Na:Al molar ratios of 0-1.5 and 0-0.75.

Version 2 includes additional data for the mass spectrometry results.

alkali activation, geopolymer, montmorillonite, illite, clay
Civil engineering and built environment
Materials sciences

Cite this dataset as:
Marsh, A., 2019. Dataset for "Alkali activation behaviour of un-calcined montmorillonite and illite clay minerals". Version 2. Bath: University of Bath Research Data Archive. Available from:


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Dataset - Alkali … minerals.xlsx
application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet (14MB)
Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0

Dataset - Alkali … minerals v2.xlsx
application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet (19MB)
Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0


Alastair Marsh
University of Bath


Andrew Heath
University of Bath

Pascaline Patureau
University of Bath

Mark Evernden
University of Bath

Pete Walker
University of Bath

University of Bath
Rights Holder


Collection date(s):

From 1 October 2015 to 1 October 2017


Data collection method:

Fig 1; Fig A2 - Atterberg plastic limit measurements were taken over a range of sodium hydroxide solution concentrations, based on BS 1377-2:1990. Fig 2; Fig 3; Fig 4; Fig A1; Fig A3 - Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis was done to identify phases with a Bruker D8 Advance instrument using monochromatic CuKalpha1 L3 (λ = 1.540598 Å) X-radiation and a Vantec superspeed detector. A step size of 0.016⁰(2θ) and step duration of 0.3 seconds were used. Fig 7; Fig 8; Fig A5; - Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was done to characterise thermal behaviour, using a Setaram Setsys Evolution TGA over a range of 30 to 1000 °C at a heating rate of 10 °C/minute. An air atmosphere was used, with a flow rate of 20 ml/minute. A connected mass spectrometer was used (Pfeiffer Omni) to identify whether evolved gas species contained OH, H2O, CO or CO2. Fig 9; Fig 10 - Magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were measured for 27Al and 29Si to characterise coordination states, using a Varian VNMRS in direct excitation. Standards used were 1M aq. Al(NO3)3 for 27Al and tetramethylsilane for 29Si. Spin rates used were 12 kHz for 27Al and 6 kHz for 29Si, and frequencies used were 104.199 kHz for 27Al and 79.435 MHz for 29Si. Sample holders were 4mm width for 27Al and 6mm width for 29Si. Fig 11; Fig A6 - Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was done to characterise molecular bonding, using a Perkin-Elmer Frontier with a diamond Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) head. Spectra were collected over a range of 4000-600 cm-1 using a resolution of 4cm-1 and 5 scans per spectrum.

Data processing and preparation activities:

Fig 2; Fig 3; Fig 4; Fig A1; Fig A3 - Patterns were corrected for sample height shift by calibrating to the most intense quartz reflection (101) at 26.6 °(2θ). Fig 3 - Le Bail extractions and Rietveld refinements of the structure were performed using JANA 2006 to extract the background signal. Fig 11; Fig A6 - Corrections were made for ATR and background using Perkin-Elmer Spectrum software.


Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council

EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in the Decarbonisation of the Built Environment (DBE)

Publication details

Publication date: 7 February 2019
by: University of Bath

Version: 2

This is the latest version of this item.

  • Version 1. (4 October 2018)
  • Version 2. (7 February 2019) [Currently Displayed]


URL for this record:

Related papers and books

Marsh, A., Heath, A., Patureau, P., Evernden, M., and Walker, P., 2018. Alkali activation behaviour of un-calcined montmorillonite and illite clay minerals. Applied Clay Science, 166, 250-261. Available from:

Contact information

Please contact the Research Data Service in the first instance for all matters concerning this item.

Contact person: Alastair Marsh


Faculty of Engineering & Design
Architecture & Civil Engineering