Dataset for "Breaking Wave Imaging using Lidar and Sonar"

This dataset comprises the primary data used in the paper "Breaking Wave Imaging using Lidar and Sonar".

The data consists of water surface elevation data throughout the surf and swash zone of a prototype-scale laboratory beach collected at the GWK Large Wave Flume, Hanover using a Lidar array and concurrent acoustic intensity data obtained using a bed-mounted multibeam. The goal of the work was to image the bubble plumes from breaking waves from above and below.

The dataset is composed of one .mat file, which was generated with the MATLAB software. The content of each file is described in the readme file and is included in the structure data as well.

Breaking waves, two-phase flow, sonar, lidar
Civil engineering and built environment
Climate and climate change
Marine environments
Mechanical engineering

Cite this dataset as:
Blenkinsopp, C., Hunter, A., Bayle, P., Bryan, O., 2019. Dataset for "Breaking Wave Imaging using Lidar and Sonar". Bath: University of Bath Research Data Archive. Available from:


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application/octet-stream (88MB)
Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0

Openly available for download


Alan Hunter
University of Bath

Paul Bayle
University of Bath


Collection date(s):

From 18 August 2017 to 26 September 2017

Geographical coverage:

GWK Large Wave Flume, Hanover, Germany


Data collection method:

The experiment was completed in the GWK Large Wave Flume in Hanover. The flume measures 309 m long, 5 m wide and 7 m deep and is equipped with a combined piston-flap-type wave paddle. A sandy beach with an initially planar slope of 1:15 was constructed at the opposite end of the flume to the wave paddle. Lidar data were collected using an array of 3 roof-mounted SICK LMS511 2D scanning Lidar. The locations of each instrument are provided in the paper. The array of instruments enabled the free surface elevation to be detected along a 60m transect throughout the surf and swash zone. Data was collected at 25Hz and the instrument had an angular resolution of 0.1666degrees. Multibeam data were collected using a bed-mounted Reson SeaBat 7125 multibeam instrument. The device was positioned seaward of the breaking wave location approximately 2 m below the still water level looking up and back toward the shallow section of the wave flume. Data was collected at 10 Hz. For further details of the methodology used, see the "Methodology" section of the corresponding paper.

Data processing and preparation activities:

Lidar data were converted from polar to cartesian coordinates to give the x and z positions of the free surface.

Technical details and requirements:

Lidar data was collected using SICK LMS511 instruments. The instruments were sampled using in-house data-acquisition software. Polar to Cartesian coordinate conversion was done using Matlab. Multibeam data was collected using a Reson SeaBat 7125 instrument. Matlab is required to use the stored dataset.

Documentation Files

text/plain (893B)
Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0


European Union

Dynamic Coastal Protection: Resilience of Dynamic Revetments Under SLR
No 654110, HYDRALAB+

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)

Waves in Shallow Water

Publication details

Publication date: 20 March 2019
by: University of Bath

Version: 1


URL for this record:

Related articles

Bryan, O., Bayle, P. M., Blenkinsopp, C. E. and Hunter, A. J., 2020. Breaking Wave Imaging Using Lidar and Sonar. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, 45(3), pp.887-897. Available from:

Contact information

Please contact the Research Data Service in the first instance for all matters concerning this item.

Contact person: Chris Blenkinsopp


Faculty of Engineering & Design
Architecture & Civil Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

Research Centres & Institutes
Centre for Space, Atmospheric and Oceanic Science
Water Informatics: Science and Engineering Centre for Doctoral Training (WISE)