Data relating to the development of pseudoplastic mortars for aerial additive manufacturing

This dataset covers the development of pseudoplastic mortars, for aerial additive manufacturing. It covers strength tests, rheology tests, calorimetry tests, deformation tests, force required tests, autonomous extrusion tests and mix formulation.

Additive Manufacturing, Calcium Aluminate Cement, Rheology, Buildability, Workabiloity, Extrusion, Strength, Cementitious Materials, Admixtures, Additives, Supplementary Cementitious Materials

Cite this dataset as:
Dams, B., 2024. Data relating to the development of pseudoplastic mortars for aerial additive manufacturing. Bath: University of Bath Research Data Archive. Available from:


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Barrie Dams … editable
application/zip (91MB)
Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0

Raw data (MS Excel) and corresponding figures (MS PowerPoint)

pseudoplastic mortar
application/zip (8MB)
Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0

PDFs resulting from the editable PowerPoint figures


Barrie Dams
University of Bath


Richard Ball
University of Bath

Paul Shepherd
University of Bath

University of Bath
Rights Holder


Collection date(s):

From 1 August 2017 to 31 December 2018


Data collection method:

Materials and drone extrusion tests were recorded by camera, observation and manual recording. Test data were input into Microsoft Excel. Mechanical tests took place on a 50 kN Instron Universal 2630-120/305632 device. Axial force tests were loaded at 5 mm/minute. Settlement test material was compressed at a rate of 2 mm/minute. Trajectory design tests: Dental plaster was applied to the hand-printed specimens to create flat upper and lower surfaces for strength testing. The devices used were the Instron 2630-120/305632 and Automax 5 50-C46W2. Flexure: prisms were tested in accordance with BS EN 12390-5:2009 (BSI, 2009), using four-point bending tests to ensure failure by flexure rather than by shear. Compressive strength used an Automax 5 50-C46W2 device in accordance with BS EN 1015-11:1999 (BSI, 1999). Rheometer tests were conducted on a TA Instruments DHR2 rheometer at a constant temperature of 25°C. Oscillatory tests used disposable aluminium flat plates with a 40 mm base plate and 25 mm diameter upper plate. Flow tests used a steel cross-hatched 40 mm base plate and upper plate. In all rheology tests, a 1000 μm geometry gap was used and material was placed upon the base plate immediately following mixing. Displacement-controlled oscillation tests were conducted over a two-hour period. An angular velocity of 5.0x10−5 radians per second and frequency was maintained at 1 Hz. Calorimetry tests were conducted using a Calormetrix I-Cal 4000 high precision isothermal calorimeter with chambers maintained at 20°C. Microscopy tests: a 10 nm gold coating was applied to samples, which were placed in a JEOL SEM6480LV scanning electron microscope.

Technical details and requirements:

Experimental test data was exported from the laboratory instruments' software and imported by Microsoft Excel.

Additional information:

Data has been organised and analysed in Microsoft Excel and figures were assembled in Microsoft PowerPoint to be exported to PDF for use with LaTeX.


University scholarship

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)

Aerial Additive Building Manufacturing

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)

Centre for Decarbonisation of the Built Environment

Publication details

Publication date: 23 February 2024
by: University of Bath

Version: 1


URL for this record:

Related papers and books

Zhang, K., Chermprayong, P., Xiao, F., Tzoumanikas, D., Dams, B., Kay, S., Kocer, B. B., Burns, A., Orr, L., Alhinai, T., Choi, C., Darekar, D. D., Li, W., Hirschmann, S., Soana, V., Ngah, S. A., Grillot, C., Sareh, S., Choubey, A., Margheri, L., Pawar, V. M., Ball, R. J., Williams, C., Shepherd, P., Leutenegger, S., Stuart-Smith, R., and Kovac, M., 2022. Aerial additive manufacturing with multiple autonomous robots. Nature, 609(7928), 709-717. Available from:

Dams, B., Chen, B., Kaya, Y. F., Orr, L., Kocer, B. B., Shepherd, P., Kovac, M., and Ball, R. J., 2024. Fresh properties and autonomous deposition of pseudoplastic cementitious mortars for aerial additive manufacturing. IEEE Access, 1-1. Available from:

Contact information

Please contact the Research Data Service in the first instance for all matters concerning this item.

Contact person: Barrie Dams


Faculty of Engineering & Design
Architecture & Civil Engineering

Research Centres & Institutes
Centre for Doctoral Training in Decarbonisation of the Built Environment (dCarb)