Dataset for ''Monovalent salt and pH-induced gelation of oxidised cellulose nanofibrils and starch networks: combining rheology and small-angle X-ray scattering''

This dataset contains the raw data used to calculate the rheological properties (such as gel modulus, stiffness, viscosity, etc) of oxidised cellulose nanofibrils (OCNF) and starch gels at various concentrations of NaCl salt and different pH environments. The interactions among the two polysaccharide species also assessed via small-angle X-ray and zeta potential measurements (data included).

Cellulose nanofibrils, starch, rheology, SAXS, salt, pH
Chemical synthesis
Materials processing
Materials sciences

Cite this dataset as:
Hossain, Z., 2021. Dataset for ''Monovalent salt and pH-induced gelation of oxidised cellulose nanofibrils and starch networks: combining rheology and small-angle X-ray scattering''. Bath: University of Bath Research Data Archive. Available from:


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Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0

Dataset for 'Monovalent salt and pH-induced gelation of oxidised cellulose nanofibrils and starch networks: combining rheology and small-angle X-ray scattering'


Zakir Hossain
Data Collector
University of Bath


Vincenzo Calabrese
University of Bath

Marcelo Alves Da Silva
University of Bath

Saffron Bryant
University of Bath

Julien Schmitt
University of Bath

Jennifer H. Ahn-Jarvis
Quadram Institute Bioscience, Norwich Research Park, Norwich

Frederick J. Warren
Quadram Institute Bioscience, Norwich Research Park, Norwich

Yaroslav Z. Khimyak
Project Member
University of East Anglia

Janet L Scott
University of Bath

Karen Edler
Project Leader
University of Bath

University of Bath
Rights Holder


Collection date(s):

From 1 March 2019 to 31 July 2020


Data collection method:

Rheological analysis: A stress-controlled rheometer (Discovery HR-3, TA Instruments, USA) equipped with a sandblasted plate-plate stainless steel geometry (40 mm) was used to perform the rheological tests at 25 °C, as described previously. Gels (approximately 0.7 mL) were placed in between the plates and frequency, amplitude sweeps and flow curves were measured (with a plate-plate gap of 0.5 mm). A thin layer of low viscosity silicone-oil was added to the edge of the geometry to prevent evaporation. Frequency sweeps were conducted, within the linear viscoelastic range, in strain control mode at 0.5% strain with an angular frequency range from 0.1 to 100 rad s-1. Amplitude sweeps were measured at an angular frequency of 1 Hz (6.28 rad s 1) covering the strain ranging from 0.5 to 50%. Finally, flow curves were measured to study the viscosity response of the sample to shearing, with a shear rate ranging from 0.01 to 100 s-1. Surface charge: Dilute suspensions (10 times dilution) of samples, using the appropriate buffer solution (DI water, NaCl or pH adjusted buffer) were used to measure the apparent ζ-potential utilising a Malvern Zeta-sizer Nano ZSP® (Malvern, UK). Samples were placed in the folded capillary electrode cell and were equilibrated at 25 °C for 120 s prior to testing. The data were taken from an average of 5 measurements from 100 scans each. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis: SAXS measurements were conducted at Diamond Light Source (Didcot, Oxfordshire, UK), on the I22 beamline (using an X-ray wavelength of 1 Å corresponding to an energy of E = 12.4 keV) equipped with a PILATUS P3-2M detector (Silicon hybrid pixel detector, DECTRIS). Samples were loaded in glass capillary tubes (diameter~1.5 mm) and sealed. An empty capillary and the capillary containing DI water were also recorded for solvent subtraction. The probed q-range was 0.005–0.2 Å−1, where q is the scattering vector.

Data processing and preparation activities:

SASView software (version 4.1.2) was used to fit the SAXS data using either a rigid and flexible elliptical cylindrical model.


Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)

New Enzymatically Produced Interpenetrating Starch-Cellulose Gels

Publication details

Publication date: 19 March 2021
by: University of Bath

Version: 1


URL for this record:

Related papers and books

Hossain, K. M. Z., Calabrese, V., da Silva, M. A., Bryant, S. J., Schmitt, J., Ahn-Jarvis, J. H., Warren, F. J., Khimyak, Y. Z., Scott, J. L. and Edler, K. J., 2021. Monovalent Salt and pH-Induced Gelation of Oxidised Cellulose Nanofibrils and Starch Networks: Combining Rheology and Small-Angle X-ray Scattering. Polymers, 13(6), p.951. Available from:

Contact information

Please contact the Research Data Service in the first instance for all matters concerning this item.

Contact person: Zakir Hossain


Faculty of Science

Research Centres & Institutes
Centre for Sustainable Chemical Technologies