Embodied energy and embodied carbon of 81 shelters globally

This excel file contains information and calculations used to estimate the embodied energy and the embodied carbon of emergency, transitional and durable shelters used to house displaced persons. The study considers a sample of 81 shelters drawn from 34 countries in South and Central America, Africa, Europe, the Middle East and Asia.

building physics
Civil engineering and built environment
Climate and climate change
Environmental planning

Cite this dataset as:
Kuchai, N., Matard, A., Coley, D., Allen, S., 2019. Embodied energy and embodied carbon of 81 shelters globally. Bath: University of Bath Research Data Archive. Available from: https://doi.org/10.15125/BATH-00550.


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The embodied … globally.xlsx
application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet (348kB)
Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0


Aude Matard
University of Bath

David Coley
University of Bath

Stephen Allen
University of Bath


University of Bath
Rights Holder


Data collection method:

In this research the boundary conditions for embodied energy and carbon estimates were “cradle-to-gate”, which are the boundary conditions of the ICE Database data. “Cradle-to-gate” boundaries include the energy and carbon associated with raw material extraction, transportation to manufacturing plants, and manufacturing and fabrication into building materials. They exclude: (i) energy and carbon associated with transportation to the construction site (as this study considers that the location is not yet known); (ii) the construction process itself; (iii) the operation of the finished building (which is climate, and thus also location, dependent); and (iv) the end of life (e.g. disposal) stage (as again this involves location-dependent figures, often unknown in a humanitarian context) The shelters were selected by prioritizing the documents that provided detailed bills of quantities. It should be stressed that our analysis and interest is not on commenting on the EE or EC of particular designs, but in looking at the summary statistics of the whole sample.

Data processing and preparation activities:

The ICE database was downloaded from http://www.circularecology.com/embodied-energy-and-carbon-footprint-database.html

Technical details and requirements:

The spreadsheet is in Microsoft Excel 2007+ format.


Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)

Healthy Housing for the Displaced

Publication details

Publication date: 16 September 2019
by: University of Bath

Version: 1

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15125/BATH-00550

URL for this record: https://researchdata.bath.ac.uk/id/eprint/550

Related papers and books

Matard, A., Kuchai, N., Allen, S., Shepherd, P., Adeyeye, K., McCullen, N., and Coley, D., 2019. An Analysis of the Embodied Energy and Embodied Carbon of Refugee Shelters Worldwide. The International Journal of the Constructed Environment, 10(3), 29-54. Available from: https://doi.org/10.18848/2154-8587/cgp/v10i03/29-54.

Kuchai, N., Shepherd, P., Calabria-Holley, J., Copping, A., Matard, A., and Coley, D., 2020. The potential for computational IT tools in disaster relief and shelter design. Journal of International Humanitarian Action, 5(1). Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s41018-020-00069-1.

Related datasets and code

Kuchai, N., 2020. Dataset for "The Potential for Computational IT Tools in Disaster Relief and Shelter Design". Version 1. Bath: University of Bath Research Data Archive. Available from: https://doi.org/10.15125/BATH-00712.

Contact information

Please contact the Research Data Service in the first instance for all matters concerning this item.

Contact person: Noorullah Kuchai


Faculty of Engineering & Design
Architecture & Civil Engineering